Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process. It may also result from injury to the back.

Lumbar radiculopathy is an irritation of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs, and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.

Myofascial pain is a chronic pain disorder. This disorder affects the muscles and connective tissues (called the fascia) that surround them. Sensitive areas referred to as “trigger points” may develop. Pressing or stressing these areas may cause pain. This condition can affect muscles throughout the body.

Post-laminectomy syndrome, sometimes referred to as “failed back syndrome,” is a type of chronic pain. This condition can develop after spine surgery.

A spinal compression fracture is a collapse of vertebral bone. Fractures can affect one or more vertebrae. Compression fractures typically develop in the mid or lower back. Fractures can change the shape of the spine.

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal. Spinal stenosis can put pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves within the spine. It commonly occurs in the neck and lower back. This condition is often caused by age-related wear and tear. Symptoms include pain, numbness, muscle weakness, and impaired bladder or bowel control. Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, and surgery.

Spondylolisthesis occurs when a lumbar vertebra slides forward, distorting the shape of the spine. This may compress the nerves in the spinal canal. The nerves that exit the foramen (i.e., the spaces on the side of the vertebrae) may also be compressed. These compressed nerves can cause pain and other problems.

Spondylosis is a crack that forms in a narrow bridge of bone at the back of the vertebrae. Often, this injury occurs in the lumbar spine. It can happen to people of all ages; however, it is more common in children and teens because their bones are still growing.